The trunk consists of five main parts: the bark, inner bark, cambium, sapwood, and heartwood. From the outside of the tree working in, the first layer is the bark; this is the protective outermost layer of the trunk. Under this is the inner bark which is made of the phloem. The phloem is how the tree transports nutrients from the roots to the shoots and vice versa. The next layer is the cambium, a very thin layer of undifferentiated cells that divide to replenish the phloem cells on the outside and the xylem cells to the inside. Directly to the inside of this is the sap wood, or the living xylem cells. These cells transport the water through the tree. Finally at the center of the tree is the heartwood. The heartwood is made up of old xylem cells that have been filled with resins and minerals to keep other organisms from growing and infecting the center of the tree.